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What is Neurofeedback?

Neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback, where data from brainwaves is used as feedback to help retrain the brain. Neurofeedback is not considered a cure, but rather a method of managing or regulating the workings of the brain in order for it to function in a healthier manner. This is achieved by repeated training sessions using a computerized neurofeedback program to teach your central nervous system to reorganize and regulate brainwave frequencies.


Neurofeedback assesses your brain and provides information about areas of dysfunction that are causing symptoms so they can be treated directly. Various neurofeedback methods and equipment are used for different types of neurological conditions.


Brainwaves & Characteristics

  • Delta, 1–4 Hz : Sleep, repair, complex problem solving, unawareness, deep-unconsciousness

  • Theta, 4–8 Hz : Creativity, insight, deep states, unconsciousness, optimal meditative state, depression, anxiety, distractibility

  • Alpha, 8–13 Hz: Alertness and peacefulness, readiness, meditation, deeply-relaxed

    • Lower alpha, 8–10 Hz: Recalling

    • Upper alpha, 10–13 Hz: Optimize cognitive performance

  • Low beta or SMR (sensorimotor rhythm), 13–15 Hz: Mental alertness, physical relaxation

  • Beta, 15–20 Hz: Thinking, focusing, sustained attention, tension, alertness, excitement

  • High beta 20–32 Hz: Intensity, hyper alertness, anxiety

  • Gamma, 32–100 or 40 Hz: Learning, cognitive processing, problem solving tasks, mental sharpness, brain activity, organize the brain



Neurofeedback treatment protocols mainly focus on the alpha, beta, delta, theta, and gamma treatment. Sometimes, a combination of protocols such as alpha/theta ratio and/or beta/theta ratio is used. However, the most commonly used protocols are alpha, beta, theta, and alpha/theta ratios.

Activities of cerebral neurons have rich information about neuronal activities. When neurons are activated, they produce electrical pulses. By placing electrodes on the scalp, the electrical activity of the brain, known as the electroencephalogram (EEG), can be recorded. In turn, an EEG is generated by a specific type of synchronous activity of neurons which are known as pyramidal neurons and the electrical output is thus reflected in the following areas of the skin where the electrodes are located.

Different patterns of electrical activity, known as brain waves, can be recognized by their amplitudes and frequencies which give the neurotherapist information on how the brain is functioning. This brainwave data is then used to design treatment protocols focused on providing the greatest clinical outcomes for clients.

How It Works

Neurofeedback is an evidence-based therapy that is gentle, safe and non-invasive.  It works by harnessing neuroplasticity, the brain’s ability to grow and adapt when introduced to new experiences. The goal of neurofeedback is to improve symptoms that are causing you the most distress.  By training the brain, we are able to decrease the intensity of emotional, psychological, and physiological symptoms so that you are able to function better in life. 


Neurofeedback teaches the brain to regulate efficiently by offering a mirror of its own activity and does not rely on any direct stimulation.

What To Expect

Typically clients either watch a movie, play a video game, or listen to music. The brain receives feedback of its own activity in the form of visual and auditory input from the respective audio or visual media. The change in input provides a rewarding message to the brain in real time, signaling when the brain is creating desired brain activity that feels good. This process is completely involuntary and even though you may not be consciously aware of the changes, learning is happening as your brain observes the shift in state to a feeling of more ease and focus. A clinician sits beside you throughout the training, making adjustments and monitoring how you are doing.

What Conditions Does Neurofeedback Treat

Clinical research and client experience support that neurofeedback helps improve symptoms for many conditions such as:


  • ADHD

  • Anxiety

  • Concussions and other brain injuries

  • Depression

  • Headaches and Migraines

  • Pain

  • PTSD or other trauma disorders

  • Sleep Disorders


Neurofeedback can also be used to enhance one’s mental functioning. For example, neurofeedback can help improve creativity and promote peak brain performance.

Is Neurofeedback Right For You

Neurofeedback can be an excellent complement to traditional talk therapy, especially for those recovering from trauma. Neurofeedback provides an approach that can teach clients what it feels like to be safe in their bodies and to decrease the feeling of constantly being on guard. As people start to feel this shift, other issues can arise for which talk psychotherapy can be helpful. This might include difficult feelings, such as grief at having lived with the effects of trauma for so long.

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